What is cardiac sarcoma?
Cardiac sarcoma is a type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous) tumor. Tumors are considered to be either primary tumors or secondary tumors. A primary tumor is the original site of tumor growth. A secondary tumor originates from another tumor elsewhere in the body. Primary tumors of the heart are rare, and most are benign (non-cancerous).
How is cardiac sarcoma diagnosed?
The methods for diagnosing cardiac sarcoma vary, to some degree, based on the symptoms present. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnostic procedures for cardiac sarcoma may include the following:
- echocardiogram (also known as echo) – a noninvasive test that uses sound waves to produce a study of the motion of the heart’s chambers and valves. The echo sound waves create an image on the monitor as an ultrasound transducer is passed over the heart. Echocardiography has become the most useful tool in the diagnosis of cardiac sarcoma, allowing the physician to see the exact size and location of the tumor.
- electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) – a test that records the electrical activity of the heart, shows abnormal rhythms (arrhythmias or dysrhythmias), and detects heart muscle damage; cardiac sarcoma may cause changes in the heart’s rhythm, however, these EKG changes may indicate other heart problems, so other diagnostic tools are needed to make a definitive diagnosis of cardiac sarcoma or any other type of heart tumor.
- computed tomography (Also called a CT or CAT scan.) – a diagnostic imaging procedure that uses a combination of x-rays and computer technology to produce cross-sectional images (often called slices), both horizontally and vertically, of the body. A CT scan shows detailed images of any part of the body, including the bones, muscles, fat, and organs. CT scans are more detailed than general x-rays and are used to further define the tumor’s size, location, and other characteristics.
- magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) – a diagnostic procedure that uses a combination of large magnets, radiofrequencies, and a computer to produce detailed images of organs and structures within the body; to further define the tumor’s size, location, and other characteristics.
- chest x-ray – a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones, and organs onto film; may detect heart enlargement or pulmonary congestion.
- cardiac catheterization – with this procedure, x-rays are taken after a contrast agent is injected into an artery – to locate the narrowing, occlusions, and other abnormalities of specific arteries.
Treatment for cardiac sarcoma:
Specific treatment for cardiac sarcoma will be determined by the physician based on:
- your age, overall health, and medical history
- extent of the disease
- your tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- expectations for the course of the disease
- your opinion or preference
Once a cardiac sarcoma has progressed to the point that symptoms begin to occur, it has often spread to other parts of the body, making treatment difficult and challenging. This spread to other parts of the body is called metastasis. The type of treatment for cardiac sarcoma depends largely upon the location and size of the tumor, as well as the extent of metastasis.
The physician may determine that the tumor can be removed, which is done with an open-heart surgical procedure. This is often difficult, however, because of the location of the tumor.
In some cases, the sarcoma has invaded the heart to such an extent that it is impossible to remove it completely. In this situation, heart transplantation has been attempted. However, a patient must receive immunosuppressive medication (medications which help to prevent the body from rejecting foreign tissue) after transplant, and this medication may stimulate new growth of sarcoma.
An exciting new prospect for treatment of cardiac sarcoma is autotransplantation. Autotransplantation is a surgical procedure in which the patient’s own heart is removed so that the tumor can be more completely and easily removed from the heart tissue. After the tumor is removed, the heart is replaced into the patient. Because the patient has not received a heart from another person, there is no need for immunosuppressive medications.