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Infant of Diabetic Mother

What is Infant of Diabetic Mother?

A fetus growing inside the woman having diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar levels throughout the pregnancy. If diabetes is not controlled during pregnancy, then it can affect both the mother and the baby during the pregnancy, at the time of birth and even after that. The infant of diabetic mother is generally larger than normal babies and therefore it becomes difficult to have vaginal delivery as there are higher chances of nerve injuries & other trauma during birth. In such cases, caesarean is usually recommended. 

What are the types of diabetes in pregnancy?

There are two types of diabetes in pregnancy, namely:

  • Gestational diabetes – In this case, the mother doesn’t have diabetes before getting pregnant but she develops it during her pregnancy. She develops a resistance to insulin because of hormones of pregnancy.
  • Pregestational diabetes – In this case, the mother already has insulin-dependent diabetes before her pregnancy.

Both types of diabetes can create complications for mother and baby. Therefore, it is important to keep a tight control of blood sugar during pregnancy. 

What are the symptoms of an Infant of Diabetic Mother?

The most common symptoms are:

  • Infant is larger than other normal babies
  • Blue or patchy skin colour
  • Rapid breathing and rapid heart rate
  • Jaundice in newborn
  • Poor feeding
  • Puffy face
  • Lethargy
  • Seizures
  • Tremors or shaking after birth 
How is Infant of Diabetic Mother treated?

The treatment of an infant born to diabetic mother depends on the control of diabetes during the last trimester and labor. Various options include:

  • Monitoring of blood glucose levels
  • Giving baby a quick source of glucose
  • Checking for hypocalcemia
  • Caring for problems occurring from birth injury or birth defects

In rare conditions, breathing machine or medications may be needed to treat other effects of diabetes. Exchange transfusion is also done in rare cases.