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Acoustic Neuroma

What is acoustic neurinoma? Acoustic neurinoma, also referred to as acoustic neuroma or vestibular schwannoma, is a non-cancerous tumor that may develop from an overproduction of Schwann cells that press…

Acromegaly

What is acromegaly? Acromegaly is the Greek word for "extremities" and "enlargement." When the pituitary gland produces excess growth hormones, this results in excessive growth - called acromegaly. The excessive…

Actinic Keratosis (A Precancerous Condition)

What is actinic keratosis? Actinic keratosis, also known as a solar keratosis, is a scaly or crusty bump that arises on the skin surface. The base may be light or…

Brain Aneurysm and AVM

What is Brain Aneurysm? A Brain Aneurysm, also known as cerebral aneurysm, is a condition in which the wall of the blood vessel in brain weakens. This vessel weakness in…

Acute Lymphocytic Leukemia

  What is acute lymphocytic leukemia? Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is a cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced by…

Yellow Fever

What is yellow fever?Yellow fever is a viral disease that is transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito. Although it is a rare disease, many countries require that visitors have the…

Acute Myelogenous Leukemia

What is acute myelogenous leukemia? Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a cancer of the blood usually in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced in…

Acute Spinal Cord Injury

What is an acute spinal cord injury? The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Acute spinal cord…

Angina Pectoris

  What is angina pectoris? Angina pectoris (or simply angina) is recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood and…

Adrenal Tumors / Pheochromocytoma

What are Adrenal tumors? Adrenal tumors are the tumors formed in the adrenal glands that are located above the kidneys. Adrenal glands are part of endocrine system that produces hormones…

Vulvitis

What is vulvitis? Vulvitis is simply an inflammation of the vulva, the soft folds of skin outside the vagina. This is not a condition, but rather a symptom that results…

African Trypanosomiasis (African Sleeping Sickness)

  What is African trypanosomiasis (African sleeping sickness)? African trypanosomiasis, also called African sleeping sickness, is a systemic disease caused by a parasite and transmitted by the bite of the…

Alcohol-Induced Liver Disease

  What is alcohol-induced liver disease? Alcohol-induced liver diseaseis damage caused to the liver due to excessive consumption of alcohol and is a common but preventable disease. There are three…

Brain Abscess

What is Brain Abscess? A Brain Abscess is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition in which there is pus-filled swelling in the brain. It occurs when bacteria or fungi enter…

Alcoholic Hepatitis

  What is alcoholic hepatitis? Hepatitis inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Alcoholic hepatitis is a complex serious Disease and is a precursor to chronic…

Alpha Thalassemia

  What is alpha thalassemia? Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the…

Alzheimer's Disease (Condition)

What is Alzheimer's disease? Alzheimer's disease is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease that occurs when nerve cells in the brain die and often results in the following:

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) / Lou Gehrigs Disease

What is amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)? Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a terminal neurological disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of nerve cells in the spinal cord and brain. Often referred…

Anemia of Folate Deficiency

What is folate-deficiency anemia? Folate deficiency is the lack of folic acid in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known as megaloblastic (pernicious) anemia. Folic acid is…

Aneurysm

What is an aneurysm? An aneurysm is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of a blood vessel resulting in an abnormal widening or ballooning greater than 50 percent of…

Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers

What are viral hemorrhagic fevers?Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHF) is a term that refers to a group of illnesses caused by several distinct families of viruses. While some types of hemorrhagic…

Vulvar Cancer

What is the vulva?The vulva is the external portion of the female genital organs. It includes:•    labia majora - two large, fleshy lips, or folds of skin•    labia minora -…

Ankylosing Spondylitis

What is ankylosing spondylitis? Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. The disease causes inflammation of the spine and large joints, resulting in stiffness and…

Dermatitis

Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis actually refers to a number of skin conditions that inflame the skin. Dermatitis is characterized by skin that may be red, swollen,…

Aphasia

What is aphasia? Aphasia is a language disorder caused by damage in a specific area of the brain that controls language expression and comprehension. It leaves a person unable to…

Vesicoureteral Reflux

What is vesicoureteral reflux (VUR)?Vesicoureteral reflux occurs when urine dwelling in the bladder flows back into the ureters and often back into the kidneys. The bladder is the hollow, muscular…

Aplastic Anemia

What is aplastic anemia? Aplastic anemia occurs when the bone marrow produces too few of all three types of blood cells: red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. A…

Arthritis (Condition)

What is arthritis? Arthritis is an inflammation of a joint (where two or more bones meet) that causes pain, stiffness and swelling in joints or other surrounding body structures such…

Dermatitis Herpetiformis

What is dermatitis herpetiformis? Dermatitis herpetiformis is an intensely pruritic (itchy) skin disease characterized by eruptions of clusters of small blisters or vesicles (small elevations of the skin containing fluid)…

Ataxia

What is ataxia? The word "ataxia" comes from the Greek word "a taxis," which means "without order or without coordination." Thus, ataxia means without coordination. Persons who are diagnosed with…

Atherosclerosis

What is atherosclerosis? Atherosclerosis is a type of arteriosclerosis caused by a build-up of plaque in the inner lining of an artery. (Arteriosclerosis is a general term for thickening or…

Atrial Fibrillation

What is an arrhythmia? Arrhythmias (or dysrhythmias) are abnormal rhythms of the heart which cause the heart to pump less effectively. Normally, as the electrical impulse moves through the heart,…

Autistic Disorder

What is autistic disorder? Autistic disorder (also called autism; more recently described as "mindblindedness") is a neurological and developmental disorder that usually appears during the first three years of life.…

Avascular Necrosis

What is avascular necrosis? Avascular necrosis (also called osteonecrosis, aseptic necrosis, or ischemic bone necrosis) is a disease that results from the temporary or permanent loss of blood supply to…

Creeping Eruption

What is creeping eruption? Creeping eruption is a skin infection caused by hookworms, which normally are found on dogs and cats. The parasite spreads to humans through skin contact with…

BSE (Mad Cow Disease) and nvCJD

What is bovine spongiform encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)? BSE is a progressive neurological disorder of cattle resulting from infection by a prion. By September 2006, 196 human cases of VCD…

Back and Neck Pain

What is low back pain? Low back pain can range from mild, dull, annoying pain, to persistent, severe, disabling pain in the lower back. Pain in the lower back can…

Baldness (Alopecia)

What Is Baldness? Baldness, also known as alopecia, is hair loss or absence of hair. Baldness is usually most noticeable on the scalp, but can occur anywhere on the body…

Barretts Esophagus

What is Barrett's esophagus? Barrett's esophagus is a condition in which normal cells that line the esophagus, called squamous cells, turn into cells not usually found in humans, called specialized…

Basal Cell Carcinoma

What is basal cell carcinoma? Basal cell cancer, sometimes called non-melanoma skin cancer, usually appears as a small, fleshy bump or nodule on the head, neck, or hands. Occasionally, these…

Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome)

Basal Cell Nevus Syndrome (Gorlin Syndrome) The risk for ovarian cancer and skin cancer is increased with basal cell nevus syndrome (also called Gorlin syndrome and nevoid basal cell carcinoma),…

Bells Palsy

What is Bell's palsy? Bell's palsy is an unexplained episode of facial muscle weakness or paralysis that begins suddenly and worsens over three to five days. This condition results from…

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

What is benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)? BPH (also referred to as benign prostatic hypertrophy) is a condition in which the prostate gland becomes very enlarged and may cause problems associated…

Beta Thalassemia (Cooleys Anemia)

What is beta thalassemia? Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues…

Vaginitis

Varicose Veins

What are varicose veins? Varicose veins are enlarged veins that are visible through the skin and may appear as blue or purple twisted, knot-like cords. Varicose veins can occur anywhere…

Vascular Headaches and Migraines

What are migraine headaches? This throbbing type of headache is distinguished by the fact that symptoms other than pain occur with the headache. Nausea and vomiting, lightheadedness, sensitivity to light…

Biliary Cirrhosis / Bile Duct Cancer

What is biliary cirrhosis? Biliary cirrhosis is a rare form of liver cirrhosis, caused by disease or defects of the bile ducts. Symptoms usually include cholestasis (accumulation of bile in…

Binge Eating Disorder

What is binge eating disorder? Binge eating disorder is an illness that resembles bulimia nervosa and is characterized by episodes of uncontrolled eating or bingeing. It differs from bulimia because…

Urticaria / Hives

What is urticaria? Urticaria, or hives, is a condition in which red, itchy, and swollen areas appear on the skin - usually as an allergic reaction from eating certain foods…

Uterine Cancer

What is the uterus? The uterus, also called the womb, is a hollow, pear-shaped organ located in a woman's lower abdomen, between the bladder and the rectum. How is uterine…

Uterine Fibroids

What are fibroids? Fibroids are the most frequently seen tumors of the female reproductive system. Fibroids, also known as uterine myomas, leiomyomas, or fibromas, are firm, compact tumors that are…

Vaginal Cancer

What is the vagina? The vagina is the passageway through which fluid passes out of the body during menstrual periods. It is also called the "birth canal." The vagina connects…

Bruxism

What is bruxism? Bruxism is the term that refers to an incessant grinding and clenching of the teeth, unintentionally, and at inappropriate times. Bruxers (persons with bruxism) are often unaware…

Bulimia Nervosa

What is bulimia nervosa? Bulimia nervosa, usually referred to as bulimia, is defined as uncontrolled episodes of overeating (bingeing) and usually followed by purging (self-induced vomiting), misuse of laxatives, enemas,…

Bladder Cancer

What is bladder cancer? Bladder cancer occurs when there are abnormal, cancerous cells growing in the bladder. According to the American Cancer Society (ACS), 70,980 cases of bladder cancer will…

Bleeding / Clotting Disorders

Bleeding / Clotting Disorders occur when the body loses its ability to make sufficient amount of proteins needed to help the blood clot in order to stop bleeding. These proteins…

Breast Infections and Inflammations

What is lactational mastitis? The most common type of breast infection is lactational mastitis. With this condition, which occurs when a woman is breastfeeding, the nipples become cracked and sore,…

Candidiasis (Yeast Infection)

What is candidiasis? Candidiasis, sometimes called moniliasis or a yeast infection, is an infection caused by yeast on the skin and/or mucous membranes. Although yeast is normally a harmless inhabitant…

Cardiac Sarcoma

What is cardiac sarcoma? Cardiac sarcoma is a type of tumor that occurs in the heart. Cardiac sarcoma is a primary malignant (cancerous) tumor. Tumors are considered to be either…

Cardiomyopathy

What is cardiomyopathy? Cardiomyopathy is any disease of the heart muscle in which the heart loses its ability to pump blood effectively. In some instances, heart rhythm is disturbed and…

Carotid Artery Disease

What is carotid artery disease? Carotid artery disease, also called carotid artery stenosis, occurs when the carotid arteries, the main blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood to the brain, become…

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

What is carpal tunnel syndrome? Carpal tunnel syndrome is a condition in which the median nerve is compressed as it passes through an opening from the wrist to the hand…

Cat Scratch Disease

What is cat scratch disease? Cat scratches and bites can cause cat scratch disease, a bacterial infection carried in cat saliva. The bacteria are passed from a cat to a…

Cervical Cancer

What is the cervix? The cervix is the lower, narrow part of the uterus (womb) located between the bladder and the rectum. It forms a canal that opens into the…

Cholangitis

What is cholangitis? Cholangitis is an inflammation of the bile duct system that is usually related to a bacterial infection. The bile duct system is the drainage system that carries…

Cholecystitis

What is cholecystitis? Cholecystitis is an inflammation of the gallbladder wall and nearby abdominal lining. Cholecystitis is usually caused by a gallstone in the cystic duct, the duct that connects…

Cellulitis

What is cellulitis? Cellulitis is a deep bacterial infection of the skin. The infection usually involves the face or the arms and legs. It may happen in normal skin, but…

Cradle Cap / Seborrheic Dermatitis

What is seborrheic dermatitis (cradle cap)? Also called cradle cap, seborrheic dermatitis in the infant is characterized by fine white scales. However, seborrheic dermatitis can also occur in the diaper…

Cholera

What is cholera? Cholera is an acute, infectious disease caused by the consumption of water or food contaminated with the bacterium Vibrio cholera. What causes cholera? Vibrio cholerae is usually…

Chondroblastoma

What is chondroblastoma? Sometimes called Codman's tumor, a chondroblastoma is a rare type of benign bone tumor that originates from cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is…

Chronic Bronchitis

What is chronic bronchitis? Chronic bronchitis is a long-term inflammation of the bronchi, which results in increased production of mucus, as well as other changes. To be classified as chronic…

Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

What is chronic fatigue syndrome? Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) is a debilitating condition characterized by profound tiredness, regardless of bed rest. CFS symptoms may actually worsen with physical or mental…

Chronic Liver Disease /Cirrhosis

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia

What is chronic lymphocytic leukemia? Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is a cancer of the blood in which too many lymphocytes, a type of white blood cell, are produced by the…

Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia

What is chronic myelogenous leukemia? Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a cancer of the blood in which too many granulocytes, a type of white blood cell, build up in the…

Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

What is chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)? COPD is a term that refers to a group of lung diseases that can interfere with normal breathing. It is estimated that more…

Chronic Venous Insufficiency

What is chronic venous insufficiency? Chronic venous insufficiency occurs when the leg veins do not allow blood to travel back to the heart. (Arteries carry blood away from the heart,…

Claudication

What is claudication? Claudication refers to limping because of pain in the thigh, calf, and/or buttocks that occurs when walking. Claudication may be a symptom of peripheral arterial disease (PAD).…

Colorectal Cancer

What is colorectal cancer? Colorectal cancer is malignant cells found in the colon or rectum. The colon and the rectum are parts of the large intestine, which is part of…

Calluses and Corns

What are calluses and corns? Calluses are protective pads made up of the thickened upper layer of skin due to repeated rubbing of the area. Corns are small calluses that…

Craniosynostosis (Craniofacial Anomaly)

What is craniosynostosis? The normal skull consists of several plates of bone that are separated by sutures. The sutures (fibrous joints) are found between the bony plates in the head.…

Cowden Syndrome

Cowden Syndrome The risk for breast cancer, gastrointestinal cancers, and thyroid cancer is increased with Cowden syndrome, a rare autosomal dominant disorder that is also associated with a number of…

Cutaneous T-Cell Lymphoma

What is cutaneous T-cell lymphoma? Cutaneous T-cell lymphoma is a disease caused when T-lymphocytes become malignant and affect the skin. T-lymphocytes are the infection-fighting white blood cells in the lymph…

Cryptosporidiosis

What is cryptosporidiosis? Cryptosporidiosis is a diarrheal infection caused by the parasite Cryptosporidium. The parasite is transmitted after drinking or swallowing contaminated food or water, including water swallowed while swimming.…

Crohns Disease

What is Crohn's disease? Crohn's disease is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that is a chronic condition that may recur at various times over a lifetime. It usually involves the…

Dengue Fever

What is dengue fever? Dengue is a viral disease transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes mainly in tropical and subtropical areas of the world, with the greatest risks occurring in: South Pacific…

Depression

What is depression? A depressive disorder is a whole-body illness, involving the body, mood, and thoughts, and affects the way a person eats and sleeps, feels about himself or herself,…

Dermatitis

What is Dermatitis? Dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin. Dermatitis actually refers to a number of skin conditions that inflame the skin. Dermatitis is characterized by skin that may…

Cystic Fibrosis (Condition)

What is cystic fibrosis? Cystic fibrosis (CF) is an inherited disease characterized by an abnormality in the glands that produce sweat and mucus. Due to improved treatments, people with CF,…

Deep Vein Thrombosis (DVT) / Thrombophlebitis

What is deep vein thrombosis? Deep vein thrombosis (DVT) occurs when a blood clot develops in a vein deep in the body. Deep veins are found within groups of muscles.…

Diabetes (Type 1, 2, and Gestational)

What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) juvenile diabetes brittle diabetes sugar…

Diabetes Insipidus

What is diabetes insipidus? Diabetes insipidus is a condition that results from insufficient production of the antidiuretic hormone (ADH), a hormone that helps the kidneys and body conserve the correct…

Diabetic Foot Problems

What causes diabetic foot problems? Neuropathy and blood vessel disease both increase the risk of foot ulcers. The nerves of the feet are the longest in the body and often…

Diabetic Nephropathy (Kidney Disease)

What is diabetic nephropathy? Nephropathy is the deterioration of the kidneys. The final stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Diabetes is the most common cause of…

Diabetic Neuropathy (Nerve Problems)

What is diabetic neuropathy? Diabetic neuropathy, a nerve disorder, is a complication of diabetes that can lead to problems throughout the body. Persons with diabetes can develop nerve problems at…

Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems

  Diabetic Retinopathy and Other Eye Problems What eye problems are often associated with diabetes? Diabetic eye disease refers to a group of eye problems that may occur in persons…

Diaper Rash

What is diaper dermatitis? Diaper dermatitis, commonly known as a diaper rash, is a term used to describe different skin rashes in the diapered area. The rash is usually red,…

Diphtheria

What is diphtheria? Diphtheria is an acute bacterial disease that can infect the body in the throat (respiratory diphtheria), nose, tonsils, and/or skin (skin or cutaneous diphtheria). A common childhood…

Diverticular Disease

What is drug-induced hepatitis? Hepatitis is the inflammation of the liver, resulting in liver cell damage and destruction. Drug-induced hepatitis is rare and is caused by toxic exposure to certain…

Dry Skin

What is dry skin? Dry skin is a very common skin condition, usually characterized by irritated skin and itchiness. Dry skin often worsens in the winter, when the air is…

Dupuytrens Contracture

What is Dupuytren's contracture? Dupuytren's contracture, also called Dupuytren's disease, usually begins with a thickening of the skin in the palm of the hand, which may develop into a hard…

Dysmenorrhea

What is dysmenorrhea? Dysmenorrhea is a menstrual condition characterized by severe and frequent menstrual cramps and pain associated with menstruation. Dysmenorrhea may be classified as primary or secondary. primary dysmenorrhea…

Dysthymia

What is dysthymia? Dysthymia, also known as dysthymic disorder, is classified as a type of affective disorder (also called mood disorder) that often resembles a less severe, yet more chronic…

Eating Disorders

Eating Disorders The term eating disorders refers to a variety of disorders. The common feature of all the eating disorders is abnormal eating behaviors. Eating disorders are serious mental health…

Elbow Pain and Problems

Elbow Pain and Problems The elbow is a hinge joint between the lower end of the humerus bone in the upper arm and the upper end of the radius and…

Repetitive Motion Injury

What is a repetitive motion injury (repetitive stress injury)? Repetitive motion injuries, also called repetitive stress injuries, are temporary or permanent injuries to muscles, nerves, ligaments, and tendons caused by…

Empty Sella Syndrome

What is empty sella syndrome? Empty sella syndrome is common in women who are overweight or have high blood pressure. Characterized by an enlarged bony structure (sella turcica) that houses…

Encephalitis

What is encephalitis? Encephalitis is an inflammation caused by a viral infection. The specific viruses involved may vary and although exposure to viruses can occur through insect bites, food or…

Enchondroma

What is an enchondroma? An enchondroma is a type of benign (non-cancerous) bone tumor that originates from cartilage. Cartilage is the specialized, gristly connective tissue that is present in adults…

End Stage Renal Disease (ESRD)

What is renal failure? Renal failure refers to temporary or permanent damage to the kidneys that results in loss of normal kidney function. There are two different types of renal…

Endometrial Cancer

What is endometrial cancer? The lining of the uterus is called the endometrium. Cancer of the endometrium, the most common cancer of the female reproductive organs, is a disease in…

Endometriosis

What is endometriosis? The name comes from the word "endometrium," which is the tissue that lines the uterus. During a woman's regular menstrual cycle, this tissue builds up and is…

Epilepsy and Seizures

What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous…

Erectile Dysfunction / Impotence

What is Erectile dysfunction? Erectile dysfunction refers to the condition in which a man faces problems regularly in getting or maintaining s firm enough erection for sexual penetration. It can…

Hidden Testicle

What do you mean by Hidden Testicle? Hidden Testicle, also known as Undescended testicle, refers to the medical condition in which there is testicle only on one side and in…

Hirsutism

What is Hirsutism? Hirsutism refers to the condition in which unwanted, male-pattern hair grow on female’s body parts like face, chin, chest and back. Normally, women have fine, pale, faintly…

Erythema Multiforme

What is erythema multiforme? Erythema multiforme is a skin disorder characterized by symmetrical, red, raised skin areas all over the body. These patches often look like "targets" (dark circles with…

Erythema Nodosum

What is erythema nodosum? Erythema nodosum is characterized by tender, red bumps, usually found on the shins. Quite often, erythema nodosum is not a separate disease, but, rather, a sign…

Escherichia coli 0157:H7

What is E. coli 0157:H7? Escherichia coli (or simply E. coli) is one of the many groups of bacteria that live in the intestines of healthy humans and most warm-blooded…

Esophageal Cancer

What is esophageal cancer? Esophageal cancer is cancer that develops in the esophagus, the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. The esophagus, located just behind the trachea,…

Ewing Sarcoma

What is Ewing sarcoma? Ewing sarcoma is a cancer that occurs primarily in the bone or soft tissue. Ewing sarcoma can occur in any bone, but it most often it…

Excessive Hairiness (Hirsutism)

What is excessive hairiness? Excessive hairiness, also known as hirsutism, is characterized by abnormal hair growth on areas of skin that are not normally hairy. Although the condition can affect…

Excessive Sweating

What is excessive sweating? Excessive sweating, also called hyperhidrosis, can affect the entire body, but usually occurs in the palms, soles, armpits, and/or groin area. Excessive sweating is normal when…

Fibrous Dysplasia

What is fibrous dysplasia? Fibrous dysplasia is a chronic disorder in which bone expands due to abnormal development of fibrous tissue, often resulting in one, or more, of the following:…

Folliculitis, Boils, and Carbuncles

What are folliculitis, boils, and carbuncles? Folliculitis is the inflammation of hair follicles due to an infection, injury, or irritation. It is characterized by tender, swollen areas that form around…

Food Allergies

What is food allergy? A food allergy is an abnormal response of the body to a certain food. It is important to know that this is different than a food…

Foot Pain and Problems

Anatomy of the foot: The foot is one of the most complex parts of the body, consisting of 28 bones connected by numerous joints, muscles, tendons, and ligaments. The foot…

Fractures

What is a fracture? A fracture is a partial or complete break in the bone. When a fracture occurs, it is classified as either open or closed: open fracture (Also…

Fungal Infections of the Skin

Fungal Infections of the Skin Skin fungi live in the dead, top layer of skin cells in moist areas of the body, such as between the toes, groin, and under…

G6PD (Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase) Deficiency

What is G6PD deficiency? G6PD deficiency is the lack of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (an enzyme present in red blood cells) in the blood, which can cause a type of anemia known…

Gallbladder Cancer

Gallbladder cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the inside lining cells of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a hollow sack located under the right side of…

Gallstones

What are gallstones? Gallstones form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into stone-like material. Too much cholesterol, bile salts, or bilirubin (bile pigment) can cause gallstones. When gallstones are…

Gas in the Digestive Tract

What is gas in the digestive tract? Gas in the digestive tract is created from: swallowing air. the breakdown of certain foods by the bacteria that are present in the…

Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD) / Heartburn

What is GERD? Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and…

Gastroparesis

What is gastroparesis? Gastroparesis is a stomach disorder in which the stomach takes too long in emptying its contents. If food remains in the stomach for too long, it can…

Generalized Anxiety Disorder

What is generalized anxiety disorder? Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) causes its sufferers chronic and exaggerated worry and tension that seem to have no substantial cause. Persons with generalized anxiety disorder…

Generalized Exfoliative Dermatitis

What is generalized exfoliative dermatitis? Generalized exfoliative dermatitis is a severe inflammation of the entire skin surface due to a reaction to certain drugs, or as a result of complications…

Gestational Diabetes

What is gestational diabetes? Gestational diabetes is a condition in which the glucose level is elevated and other diabetic symptoms appear during pregnancy in a woman who has not previously…

Giant Cell Tumor

What is a giant cell tumor? A giant cell tumor is one that is made up of a large number of benign (non-cancerous) cells that form an aggressive tumor -…

Giardiasis

What is giardiasis? Giardiasis is an infectious diarrheal disease caused by the parasite Giardia intestinalis (also known as Giardia lamblia or Giardia duodenalis ), which can be transmitted through oral-fecal…

Glomerulonephritis

What is glomerulonephritis? Glomerulonephritis is a type of glomerular kidney disease in which the kidneys' filters (called glomeruli composed of tiny blood vessels) become inflamed and scarred, and slowly lose…

Glomerulosclerosis

What is glomerulosclerosis? Glomerulosclerosis is the term used to describe scarring that occurs within the kidneys in the small balls of tiny blood vessels called the glomeruli. The glomeruli assist…

Goodpasture Syndrome

What is Goodpasture syndrome? Goodpasture syndrome is a rare, autoimmune disease that can affect the lungs and kidneys. Normally, the immune system creates antibodies to fight off germs. With Goodpasture…

Gout

What is gout? Gout is characterized by inflamed, painful joints due to the formation of crystal deposits at the joints. Also known as "the disease of kings and the king…

Granuloma Annulare

h5>What is granuloma annulare? Granuloma annulare is a chronic skin condition characterized by small, raised bumps that form a ring with a normal or sunken center. The cause of granuloma…

Guillain-Barr Syndrome

What is Guillain-Barré syndrome? Guillain-Barré syndrome is a neurological disorder in which the body's immune system attacks part of the peripheral nervous system. The onset can be quite sudden and…

HIV / AIDS

What is AIDS? AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which kills or impairs cells of the immune system and progressively destroys the body's…

Hair Loss

Facts about normal hair growth: About 90 percent of hair on the scalp grows continually. The other 10 percent of scalp hair is in a resting phase that lasts two…

Halitosis (Bad Breath)

What is halitosis? Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by consistently odorous breath. Often identifying the cause of bad breath is the first step toward treating this preventable condition.…

Hand Pain and Problems

Anatomy of the hand The hand is composed of many different bones, muscles, and ligaments that allow for a large amount of movement and dexterity. There are three major types…

Hashimotos Thyroiditis

What is Hashimoto's thyroiditis? Thyroiditis is the inflammation of the thyroid gland. Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the most common form of thyroiditis. Classified as an autoimmune disorder, Hashimoto's thyroiditis is the…

Head Injury

What is a head injury? Head injuries are one of the most common causes of disability and death in adults. The injury can be as mild as a bump, bruise…

Headache

A headache is pain or discomfort in the head or face area.

Heart Attack

What is a heart attack (myocardial infarction)? A heart attack, or myocardial infarction, occurs when one or more regions of the heart muscle experience a severe or prolonged lack of…

Heart Failure (Condition)

What is heart failure? Heart failure, also called congestive heart failure, is a condition in which the heart cannot pump enough oxygenated blood to meet the needs of the body's…

Heart Murmurs

What causes a heart murmur? Heart murmurs may be caused by a number of factors or diseases, including defective heart valves holes in the heart walls (atrial septal defect or…

Heart Valve Diseases (Condition)

What are heart valves? The heart consists of four chambers, two atria (upper chambers) and two ventricles (lower chambers). There is a valve through which blood passes before leaving each…

Helicobacter Pylori

What is Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori)? H. pylori is a spiral-shaped bacterium found in the stomach, which (along with acid secretion) damages stomach and duodenal tissue, causing inflammation and peptic…

Hematuria (Blood in the Urine)

What is hematuria? Hematuria is the presence of red blood cells (RBCs) in the urine. Often, the urine appears normal to the naked eye, but examination under a microscope shows…

Hemochromatosis

What is hemochromatosis? Hemochromatosis, also called iron overload disease, is one of the most common genetic disorder in the US. It is a metabolic disorder that causes increased absorption of…

Hemolytic Anemia

What is hemolytic anemia? Hemolytic anemia is a disorder in which the red blood cells are destroyed faster than the bone marrow can produce them. The term for destruction of…

Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

What is hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS)? Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a rare condition that mostly affects children under the age of 10. It is often characterized by: damage to the…

Hemorrhoids

What are hemorrhoids? Hemorrhoids are veins, normally present in and around the anus and lower rectum, that have become swollen due to stretching under pressure. These are very common in…

Hepatitis A

What is hepatitis? The liver is one of the organs that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. It is the largest organ in the body…

Hepatitis C

What is hepatitis? The liver is one of the organs that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. It is the largest organ in the body…

Hepatitis B

What is hepatitis? The liver is one of the organs that helps with digestion but is not part of the digestive tract. It is the largest organ in the body…

Hiatal Hernia

What is a hiatal hernia? A hernia is a protrusion of part of an organ through the muscle wall that surrounds it. A hiatal hernia occurs when the upper part…

High Blood Pressure / Hypertension

What is blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of the blood pushing against the artery walls. The force is generated with each heartbeat as blood is pumped from the…

Hip Fracture

What is a hip fracture? A hip fracture is a break in the femur (thigh bone) of the hip joint. Joints are areas where two or more bones meet. The…

Hip Problems

What is the hip? The hip is defined as the region on each side of the pelvis. The pelvis bone is made up of three sections, including the following: ilium…

Hodgkins Disease

What is Hodgkin disease? Hodgkin disease is a type of lymphoma, a cancer in the lymphatic system. The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2009 about 8,510 new cases will…

Hyperparathyroidism

Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too much parathyroid hormones, which in turn stimulate increased levels of calcium in the blood stream.

Hypoglycemia (Low Blood Sugar)

What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia is a condition characterized by a glucose (blood sugar) level that is too low to effectively fuel the body's blood cells. Glucose is the main source…

Hypoparathyroidism

What is hypoparathyroidism? Hypoparathyroidism is caused by underactive parathyroid glands. Underactive parathyroid glands do not produce enough parathyroid hormones. This causes low levels of calcium in the bloodstream. The low…

Behavior Disorders

Treatment Programs Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and…

Idiopathic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

What is idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)? ITP is a blood disorder characterized by an abnormal decrease in the number of platelets in the blood. Platelets are cells in the blood…

Immunoglobulin A (IgA) Nephropathy

What is IgA nephropathy? IgA nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that may progress over a period of 10 to 20 years, and can lead to end-stage renal disease. It…

Impotence / Erectile Dysfunction

What is erectile dysfunction (ED)? Impotence, or erectile dysfunction, is the inability to achieve an erection, and/or dissatisfaction with the size, rigidity, and/or duration of erections. According to the National…

Indigestion

What is indigestion? Indigestion, also known as dyspepsia, is a painful or burning feeling in the upper abdomen and is usually accompanied by nausea, bloating or gas, a feeling of…

Infectious Arthritis

What is infectious arthritis? Infectious arthritis is an infection in the joint (synovial) fluid and joint tissues. The infection usually reaches the joint(s) though the bloodstream, although some joints may…

Infectious Mononucleosis

What is infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, "mono," or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue. What causes infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis is…

Infertility

What is infertility? Infertility is defined by the American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) as a disease of the reproductive system that impairs the body's ability to perform the basic…

Ngrown Hairs

What is an ingrown hair? An ingrown hair is a hair that curls and penetrates the skin with its tip, causing inflammation. Ingrown hairs are more common among people with…

Interstitial Lung Disease (Pulmonary Fibrosis)

What are interstitial lung diseases? Interstitial lung disease, or ILD, is a common term that includes 130 to 200 chronic lung disorders, which may be: chronic nonmalignant (non-cancerous) noninfectious Interstitial…

Iron-Deficiency Anemia

What is iron-deficiency anemia? The most common cause of anemia is iron deficiency. Iron is needed to form hemoglobin. Iron is mostly stored in the body in the hemoglobin. About…

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS)

What is irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)? Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is an intestinal disorder that causes the following: crampy pain gassiness bloating changes in bowel habits IBS has inaccurately been…

Keratosis Pilaris

What is keratosis pilaris? Keratosis pilaris is a common skin disorder characterized by small, pointed pimples. The pimples usually appear on the upper arms, thighs, and buttocks. The condition worsens…

Kidney Cancer (Condition)

What is kidney cancer? Most cancers are named after the part of the body where the cancer first begins, and kidney cancer is no exception. Kidney cancer begins in the…

Kidney Stones (Condition)

What is a kidney stone? A kidney stone is a solid piece of material that forms from crystallization of excreted substances in the urine. The stone may remain in the…

Knee Pain and Problems

Brief anatomy of the knee: The knee is a vulnerable joint that bears a great deal of stress from everyday activities such as lifting and kneeling, and from high-impact activities…

Kyphosis

What is kyphosis? A normal spine, when viewed from behind appears straight. However, a spine affected by kyphosis shows evidence of a forward curvature of the back bones (vertebrae) in…

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which, in turn, causes the body to be unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in…

Lactose Intolerance

Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which, in turn, causes the body to be unable to digest lactose, a sugar found in…

Landau-Kleffner Syndrome

What is Landau-Kleffner syndrome? Landau-Kleffner syndrome (also called infantile acquired aphasia, acquired epileptic aphasia, or aphasia with convulsive disorder) is a language disorder. It frequently occurs in normally-developing children, usually…

Laryngeal Cancer (Cancer of the Larynx)

What is laryngeal cancer? Laryngeal cancer includes cancerous cells found in any part of the larynx - the glottis, the supraglottis, or the subglottis. The larynx, often referred to as…

Lateral Epicondylitis (Tennis Elbow)

What is lateral epicondylitis? Lateral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is characterized by pain on the outside (lateral side) of the elbow. The pain is caused by damage to…

Latex Allergy

h5>What is a latex allergy? Natural rubber latex, a milky fluid found in rubber trees, has a contaminating protein in the rubber that causes allergic reactions, not with the rubber…

Leukemia

What is leukemia? Leukemia is cancer of the blood cells - usually the white blood cells. Leukemic cells look different than normal cells and do not function properly. How is…

Li-Fraumeni Syndrome

The risk for breast cancer  and many other forms of cancer is increased with Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS), a genetic autosomal dominant cancer syndrome. A diagnosis of LFS is made when…

Ligament Injuries to the Knee

What are knee ligaments? There are four major ligaments in the knee. Ligaments are elastic bands of tissue that connect bones to each other and provide stability and strength to…

Liver Tumors

What is a tumor? Tumors are abnormal masses of tissue that form when cells begin to reproduce at an increased rate. The liver can grow both non-cancerous (benign) and cancerous…

Low Milk Production

What causes low milk production? Occasionally, a delay in the time when milk "comes in" turns into an ongoing problem with low milk production. Sometimes, a mother has been producing…

Lumbar Disc Disease (Herniated Disc)

Anatomy of the lumbar spine: The vertebral column, also called the backbone, is made up of 33 vertebrae that are separated by spongy disks and classified into four distinct areas.…

Lung Cancer (Condition)

What is lung cancer? Lung cancer is cancer that usually starts in the lining of the bronchi (the main airways of the lungs), but can also begin in other areas…

Lyme Disease

What is Lyme disease? Lyme disease (LD) is a multi-stage, multi-system bacterial infection caused by the spirochete Borrelia burgdorferi, a spiral shaped bacterium that is most commonly transmitted by a…

Lymphedema Following a Mastectomy

What is the lymphatic system? The lymphatic system consists of many vessels that carry lymph (a clear, colorless fluid containing water and a few blood cells that originates in many…

Major Depression

What is major depression? Major depression, also known as clinical depression or unipolar depression, is classified as a type of affective disorder or mood disorder that goes beyond the day's…

Malaria

What is malaria? Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite that is transmitted person-to-person by the bite of an infected Anopheles mosquito. These mosquitoes are present in the tropics…

Manic Depression / Bipolar Disorder

What is manic depression? Manic depression, also known as bipolar disorder, is classified as a type of affective disorder or mood disorder that goes beyond the day's ordinary ups and…

Mastitis

What is mastitis? Mastitis is often used interchangeably with the term breast infection, but mastitis may also be due to an inflammation. Often a reddened area is noted on the…

Measles

What is measles? Measles is a viral illness characterized by a distinct rash and a fever. Spread through airborne droplets of nasal secretions, measles is very contagious. When infected people…

Medial Epicondylitis (Golfers and baseball Elbow)

What is medial epicondylitis? Medial epicondylitis, also known as golfer's elbow, baseball elbow, suitcase elbow, or forehand tennis elbow, is characterized by pain from the elbow to the wrist on…

Medical Conditions and Pregnancy

Medical conditions that may affect pregnancy: Certain medical conditions may complicate a pregnancy. However, with proper medical care, most women can enjoy a healthy pregnancy, despite their medical challenges. What…

Megaloblastic (Pernicious) Anemia

What is megaloblastic anemia? Megaloblastic anemia is a type of anemia characterized by very large red blood cells. In addition to the cells being large, the inner contents of each…

Melanoma

What is melanoma? Melanoma is a disease of the skin in which cancer cells are found in the melanocytes, the cells that produce color in the skin or pigment known…

Menieres Disease

What is Ménière's disease? Ménière's disease is a balance disorder caused by an abnormality found in a section of the inner ear called the labyrinth. There are an estimated 615,000…

Menorrhagia

Menorrhagia is the most common type of abnormal uterine bleeding characterized by heavy and prolonged menstrual bleeding.

Mental Health Disorders in Children and Teens

Mental Health Disorders in Children and Teens Many children and adolescents have mental health problems that interfere with their normal development and daily life activities. Some mental health problems are…

Merkel Cell Cancer

What is Merkel cell cancer? Merkel cell cancer is also known as neuroendocrine cancer of the skin, or trabecular cancer. Characterized by firm, shiny skin lumps, this rare cancer develops…

metabolic Syndrome

What is metabolic syndrome? metabolic syndrome is a condition that includes the presence of a cluster of risk factors specific for cardiovascular disease. metabolic syndrome significantly raises the risk of…

Mitral Valve Prolapse

What is mitral valve prolapse (MVP)? Mitral valve prolapse, also known as click-murmur syndrome, Barlow's syndrome, balloon mitral valve, or floppy valve syndrome, is the bulging of one or both…

Molluscum Contagiosum

What is molluscum contagiosum? Molluscum contagiosum is a viral disease of the skin that causes small, pink or skin-colored bumps on the skin. It is not harmful and usually does…

Mononucleosis

What is infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis, also known as mononucleosis, "mono," or glandular fever, is characterized by swollen lymph glands and chronic fatigue. What causes infectious mononucleosis? Infectious mononucleosis is…

Mouth Infections

What is the herpes simplex virus? Some people call it a cold sore, others a fever blister, but this annoying and often painful chronic condition is caused by the same…

Multiple Pregnancy

Multiple Pregnancy

Multiple Sclerosis

What is multiple sclerosis (MS)? Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disease of the central nervous system. It is thought to be an autoimmune disorder. It is an unpredictable condition…

Mumps

What is mumps? Mumps is an acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes…

Muscular Contraction and Tension Headaches

What is a tension headache? Tension headaches are the most common type of headache. Stress and muscle tension are often factors in tension type headaches. Tension headaches typically do not…

Myasthenia Gravis

What is myasthenia gravis? Myasthenia gravis (MG) is a complex, autoimmune disorder in which antibodies destroy neuromuscular connections. This causes problems with the nerves that communicate with muscles. MG affects…

Myeloma Bone Disease / Multiple Myeloma

What is myeloma bone disease? Myeloma bone disease is cancer that affects certain white blood cells called plasma cells. The American Cancer Society estimates that about 20,580 new cases of…

Narcolepsy

What is narcolepsy? Narcolepsy is a chronic, neurological sleep disorder with no known cause. It involves the body's central nervous system. Narcolepsy is a genetic disorder, but what causes narcolepsy…

Neck Pain

What is neck pain? The neck is located between the head and the shoulders. Because of its location and range of motion, it is often left unprotected and subject to…

Nephrotic Syndrome

What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome is a condition often characterized by the following: Very High Levels Of Protein In The Urine Low Levels Of Protein In The Blood Swelling,…

Neurocutaneous Syndromes

What are neurocutaneous syndromes? Neurocutaneous syndrome is a broad term for a group of neurologic (brain, spine, and peripheral nerve) disorders. These diseases are life-long conditions that can cause tumors…

Non-Hodgkins Lymphoma

What is non-Hodgkin lymphoma? Non-Hodgkin lymphoma is a cancer in the lymphatic system. The American Cancer Society estimates that there will be 65, 980 new cases of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in…

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

What is obsessive-compulsive disorder? Obsessive-compulsive disorder is an anxiety disorder in which a person has an unreasonable thought, fear, or worry that he or she tries to manage through a…

Occupational Asthma

Asthma and your occupation: Approximately 15 percent of adults with asthma experience occupational asthma. Occupational asthma is a type of asthma caused by exposure to inhaled irritants in the workplace.…

Occupational Lung Diseases

What are occupational lung diseases? Repeated and long-term exposure to certain irritants on the job can lead to an array of lung diseases that may have lasting effects, even after…

Oral Cancer (Condition)

What is oral cancer? Oral cancer is cancer found in the oral cavity (the mouth area) and the oropharynx (the throat area at the back of the mouth). Oral cancer…

Osteoarthritis

What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the breakdown of…

Osteochondroma

What is osteochondroma? Also called osteocartilaginous exostoses, osteochondroma is an overgrowth of cartilage and bone near the end of the bone near the growth plate. This type of overgrowth can…

Osteogenesis Imperfecta

What is osteogenesis imperfecta? Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI), also known as brittle-bone disease, is a genetic (inherited) disorder characterized by bones that break easily without a specific cause. An estimated 20,000…

Osteosarcoma

What is osteosarcoma? Osteosarcoma is a type of bone cancer that develops in the osteoblast cells that form the outer covering of bone. It occurs most often in children, adolescents,…

Osteomyelitis

What is osteomyelitis? Osteomyelitis is an inflammation or swelling of bone tissue that is usually the result of an infection. Osteomyelitis, or bone infection, may occur for many different reasons…

Osteoporosis (Condition)

What is osteoporosis? Osteoporosis, or porous bone, is a disease in which there is a loss of bone mass and destruction of bone tissue. This process causes weakening of the…

Other Bacterial Skin Infections

What are some other types of bacterial skin infections? The following are other common bacterial skin infections: Infection Symptoms Treatment Erysipelas A skin infection caused by hemolytic streptococci, this condition…

Other Benign Skin Growths

What are other benign skin growths? As a person grows older and is exposed to sunlight, the skin changes. Most people have some skin marks, such as freckles and moles,…

Other Dermatitis Conditions

What are some other dermatitis conditions? The following are some of the other common dermatitis conditions: Condition Description Symptoms Treatment localized scratch dermatitis A chronic inflammation of the skin that…

Other Liver Disorders

What are autoimmune liver disorders? An autoimmune disorder is any reaction or attack of a person's immune system against its own organs and tissues. In the liver, the immune system…

Other Types of Skin Cancer: Kaposis Sarcoma

What is Kaposi's sarcoma? Kaposi's sarcoma is a cancer that starts in the skin's blood vessels. Kaposi's sarcoma comes in two forms: a slow-growing form, and a more aggressive, faster-spreading…

Ovarian Cancer

What are the ovaries? The ovaries are female reproductive organs located in the pelvis. There are two of them - one on each side of the uterus. The ovaries produce…

Ovarian Cancer and Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC)

Ovarian Cancer and Hereditary Nonpolyposis Colon Cancer (HNPCC) The risk for ovarian cancer is increased with hereditary nonpolyposis colon cancer (HNPCC), or Lynch syndrome, an autosomal dominant cancer genetic syndrome.…

Overactive Adrenal Glands / Cushings Syndrome

What are overactive adrenal glands? When adrenal glands produce excessive amounts of certain hormones, they are called "overactive." Symptoms and treatment depend on which hormones are being overproduced: androgenic steroids…

Whooping Cough (Pertussis)

What is whooping cough (pertussis)?/h5> Whooping cough, or pertussis, mainly affects infants and young children. Caused by a bacterium, it is characterized by paroxysms (intense fits or spells) of coughing…

Paget's Disease of the Bone

What is Paget's disease of the bone? Paget's disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and deformed. Bone may become dense, but fragile,…

Whiplash Injury

What is whiplash? Whiplash is an injury to the neck caused by the neck bending forcibly forward and then backward, or vice versa. The injury usually involves the muscles, discs,…

Paget's Disease of the Bone

What is Paget's disease of the bone? Paget's disease of the bone is a chronic bone disorder in which bones become enlarged and deformed. Bone may become dense, but fragile,…

Pancreatic Cancer

What is pancreatic cancer? Pancreatic cancer is the fourth most common cause of cancer death in men and women in the US. According to the American Cancer Society, it is…

Panic Disorder

What is panic disorder? Panic disorder is characterized by chronic, repeated, and unexpected panic attacks - bouts of overwhelming fear of being in danger when there is no specific cause…

Parathyroid Tumor

What is a parathyroid tumor? A parathyroid tumor is a growth inside a parathyroid gland. Parathyroid tumors may cause increased levels of parathyroid hormones secreted by the parathyroid glands, leading…

Parkinson's Disease (Condition)

What is Parkinson's disease? Parkinson's disease (PD or, simply, Parkinson's) is the most common form of parkinsonism, a group of motor system disorders. It is a slowly progressing, degenerative disease…

Pelvis Problems

What is the pelvis? The pelvis is a basin-shaped structure that supports the spinal column and protects the abdominal organs. It contains the following: sacrum - a spade-shaped bone that…

Pericarditis

What is pericarditis? Pericarditis is inflammation of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart. There is a small amount of fluid between the inner and outer layers…

Periodontal Diseases

What are periodontal diseases? The word periodontal literally means "around the tooth." Periodontal diseases, also called gum diseases, are serious bacterial infections that destroy the gums and the surrounding tissues…

Peripheral Vascular Disease

What is peripheral vascular disease (PVD)? Peripheral vascular disease (PVD) is a slow and progressive circulation disorder. It may involve disease in any of the blood vessels outside of the…

Peritonitis

What is peritonitis? Peritonitis is an infection caused by an inflammation of the lining of the abdominal cavity, known as the peritoneum. The peritoneum, a thin, clear membrane, normally covers…

Personality Disorders

What are personality disorders? For persons without a personality disorder, personality traits are patterns of thinking, reacting, and behaving that remain relatively consistent and stable over time. Persons with a…

Peyronie's Disease

What is Peyronie's disease? Peyronie's disease is characterized by a plaque, or hard lump, that forms on the erection tissue of the penis. The plaque often begins as an inflammation…

Pharyngitis / Tonsillitis

What is pharyngitis and tonsillitis? Pharyngitis and tonsillitis are infections in the throat that cause inflammation. If the tonsils are primarily affected, it is called tonsillitis. If the throat is…

Phobias

What is a phobia? According to the American Psychiatric Association, a phobia is an uncontrollable, irrational, and persistent fear of a specific object, situation, or activity. The fear experienced by…

Pituitary Tumors

What are Pituitary tumors? Pituitary tumors refer to the abnormal growths that develop in the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland is a very small gland that is located at the…

Premature Puberty

What do you mean by Premature Puberty? Puberty is when your child develops physically and emotionally into young men and men. Puberty generally begins after 7-8 years of age in…

Pityriasis Rosea

What is pityriasis rosea? Pityriasis rosea is a mild, but common, skin condition. Characterized by scaly, pink, inflamed skin, the condition can last from four to eight weeks and usually…

Plugged Milk Ducts

Treatment Programs Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and…

Poison Ivy / Poison Oak

What is poison ivy/poison oak? There are three native American plants that collectively may be called poison ivy: poison ivy poison oak poison sumac These plants can cause an allergic…

Poliomyelitis (Polio)

What is poliomyelitis (polio)? Poliomyelitis is a highly contagious infectious disease caused by three types of poliovirus. The poliovirus is a virus most recognized for its destruction to the nervous…

Polycystic Kidney Disease

What is polycystic kidney disease (PKD)? Polycystic kidney disease (PKD) is a genetic disorder characterized by the growth of numerous cysts filled with fluid in the kidneys. PKD cysts can…

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

What is post-traumatic stress disorder? Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a debilitating condition that often follows a terrifying physical or emotional event - causing the person who survived the event…

Postpartum Thyroiditis

What is postpartum thyroiditis? In addition to playing an important role in the development of a growing fetus, proper thyroid hormone levels also help to minimize the chance of any…

Pregnancy

Pregnancy A pregnancy is divided into three phases, called trimesters. Each trimester has its own significant milestones. The first trimester is the most fragile period, during which all major organs…

Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD)

What is premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD)? A much more severe form of the collective symptoms known as premenstrual syndrome (PMS), premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) affects approximately 3 percent to 8…

Premenstrual Syndrome (PMS)

What is premenstrual syndrome? Most women experience some unpleasant or uncomfortable symptoms during their menstrual cycle. For some women, the symptoms are significant, but of short duration and not disabling.…

Prickly Heat

What is prickly heat? Prickly heat is a skin rash caused by trapped sweat under the skin. Sweat can become trapped when the narrow ducts through which sweat travels to…

Primary Hyperparathyroidism

What is primary hyperparathyroidism? Primary hyperparathyroidism is a metabolic disorder in which one (or more) of the parathyroid glands produces too much parathyroid hormone, which can result in the loss…

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

What is primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)? Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels. What are causes of…

Primary Pulmonary Hypertension

What is primary pulmonary hypertension (PPH)? Pulmonary hypertension is a lung disorder in which the blood pressure in the pulmonary artery rises far above normal levels. What are causes of…

Prostate Disease

Facts about the prostate gland: The prostate is a sex gland in men. It is about the size of a walnut, and surrounds the neck of the bladder and urethra…

Prostatitis

What is prostatitis? Prostatitis is one of several benign (non-cancerous), inflamed conditions of the prostate gland. Acute prostatitis occurs suddenly, with sharp, severe symptoms. Chronic prostatitis develops gradually, recurs often,…

Pseudocysts of the Pancreas

What are pseudocysts of the pancreas? Pseudocysts of the pancreas are abnormal collections of fluid, dead tissue, pancreatic enzymes, and blood that can lead to a painful mass in the…

Psoriasis

What is psoriasis? Psoriasis is a chronic skin condition characterized by inflamed, red, raised areas that often develop as silvery scales on the scalp, elbows, knees, and lower back. Psoriasis…

Psoriatic Arthritis

What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease characterized by red, scaly rashes and thick, pitted fingernails. The…

Pulmonary Embolism

What is a pulmonary embolism? A pulmonary embolism (PE) is a blood clot that develops in a blood vessel elsewhere in the body (most commonly from the leg), travels to…

Pulmonary Sarcoidosis

What is sarcoidosis? Sarcoidosis is a rare disease that results from inflammation. Currently, the cause is unknown and usually develops between 20 to 50 years of age. Almost ninety percent…

Pulmonary Emphysema

What is pulmonary emphysema? Emphysema is a chronic lung condition in which alveoli, or air sacs, may be: destroyed narrowed collapsed stretched over-inflated Over-inflation of the air-sacs is a result…

Rabies

What is rabies? Rabies is a widespread, viral infection of warm-blooded animals. Caused by a virus in the Rhabdoviridae family, it attacks the nervous system and, once symptoms develop, it…

Raynaud's Phenomenon

What is Raynaud's phenomenon? Raynaud's phenomenon or, simply, Raynaud's, is a disorder characterized by decreased blood flow - usually to the fingers, and less frequently to the ears, toes, nipples,…

Reactive Arthritis (Reiter's Syndrome)

What is reactive arthritis? Reactive arthritis, also known as Reiter's syndrome, is a type of arthritis that occurs as a reaction to an infection somewhere in the body. Most infections…

Reflux

What is GERD? Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) is a digestive disorder that is caused by gastric acid flowing from the stomach into the esophagus. Gastroesophageal refers to the stomach and…

Renal Vascular Disease

What is renal vascular disease? Renal vascular disease is the name given to a variety of complications that affect the arteries and veins of the kidneys. These complications affect the…

Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS)

What is restless legs syndrome (RLS)? Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a sleep disorder in which a person experiences unpleasant sensations in the legs, which are described as: creeping crawling…

Rheumatic Heart Disease

What is rheumatic heart disease? Rheumatic heart disease is a condition in which permanent damage to heart valves is caused by rheumatic fever. The heart valve is damaged by a…

Rhinitis

What is rhinitis? Rhinitis is a reaction that occurs in the eyes, nose and throat when airborne irritants (allergens) trigger the release of histamine. Histamine causes inflammation and fluid production…

Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever

What are the symptoms of Rocky Mountain Spotted Fever? The following are the most common symptoms of RMSF. However, each person may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include: a non-itchy…

Rosacea

What is rosacea? Rosacea is a common skin condition that usually only affects the face and eyes. Characterized by redness, pimples, and broken blood vessels, rosacea tends to begin after…

Rotator Cuff Injury

What is rotator cuff injury? The rotator cuff consists of muscles and tendons that hold the shoulder in place. It is one of the most important parts of the shoulder.…

Rubella (German Measles)

What is rubella (German measles)? Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is an acute viral infection that causes a mild illness in children and slightly more severe illness in adults. The…

Scabies

What is scabies? Scabies is an infestation of mites (tiny insects) characterized by small, red bumps and intense itching. This highly contagious infection often spreads from person to person while…

Scars

What is a scar? A scar is the body's natural way of healing and replacing lost or damaged skin. A scar is usually composed of fibrous tissue. Scars may be…

Schizophrenia

What is schizophrenia? Schizophrenia is one of the most complex of all mental health disorders. It involves a severe, chronic, and disabling disturbance of the brain. And, what was once…

Sciatica

What is sciatica? Sciatica, also known as lumbar radiculopathy, is a pain that originates along the sciatic nerve, which extends from the back of the pelvis down the back of…

Scleroderma

What is scleroderma? Scleroderma, also called systemic sclerosis, is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin, and internal organs. Scleroderma is also associated with blood vessel abnormalities. Scleroderma…

Scoliosis

What is scoliosis? A normal spine, when viewed from behind, appears straight. However, a spine affected by scoliosis shows evidence of a lateral, or side-to-side curvature, with the spine looking…

Seasonal Affective Disorder

What is seasonal affective disorder? Seasonal affective disorder, or SAD, is a mood disorder characterized by depression related to a certain season of the year - especially winter. However, SAD…

Sebaceous Cysts

What are sebaceous cysts? Sebaceous cysts are harmless, slow-growing bumps under the skin, often appearing on the scalp, face, ears, back, or groin area. The cysts usually contain dead skin…

Seborrheic Dermatitis

What is seborrheic dermatitis? Seborrheic dermatitis is an inflammation of the upper layers of skin, characterized by red, itchy skin that sheds scales. A hereditary condition, seborrheic dermatitis is often…

Seizures

What is epilepsy? Epilepsy is a neurological condition involving the brain that makes people more susceptible to having seizures. It is one of the most common disorders of the nervous…

Septicemia

What is septicemia? Septicemia is the clinical name for blood poisoning. Septicemia that progresses to septic shock has a death rate as high as 50 percent, depending on the type…

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS)

What is SARS? Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is a rapidly spreading, potentially fatal infectious viral disease. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), SARS was recognized…

Shingles (Herpes Zoster)

What is shingles? Shingles, or herpes zoster, is a common viral infection of the nerves, which results in a painful rash or small blisters on an area of skin anywhere…

Shoulder Dislocation

What is dislocation of the shoulder? Dislocation of the shoulder means the displacement of the upper arm bone (humerus) out of the shoulder joint. The shoulder joint is the most…

Shoulder Pain and Problems

What is the shoulder? The shoulder is made up of several layers, including the following: bones - the collarbone (clavicle), the shoulder blade (scapula), and the upper arm bone (humerus).…

Shoulder Tendonitis

What is shoulder tendonitis? Tendonitis of the shoulder is an inflammation of the rotator cuff and/or biceps tendon. Shoulder tendonitis is usually the result of a tendon being pinched by…

Sickle Cell Disease

What is sickle cell disease? Sickle cell disease is an inherited blood disorder characterized by defective hemoglobin (a protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues of…

Sinusitis

What are sinuses? The sinuses are cavities, or air-filled pockets, that are near the nasal passage. There are four different types of sinuses: ethmoid sinus - located inside the face,…

Skin Cancer (Condition)

Treatment Programs Massachusetts General Hospital understands that a variety of factors influence patients' health care decisions. That's just one reason why we're dedicated to ensuring patients understand their diagnosis and…

Skin Pigment Disorders

What are skin pigment disorders? Skin color is determined by a pigment (melanin) made by specialized cells in the skin (melanocytes). The amount and type of melanin determines a person's…

Snoring

What is snoring? Snoring is the sound that occurs during sleep when flow of air is obstructed in the area where the tongue and upper throat meet the soft palate…

Soft-Tissue Injuries

What are soft-tissue injuries? Many activities can lead to soft-tissue damage of muscles, ligaments, and tendons. The result can be pain, swelling, bruising, and damage. Soft-tissue injuries are classified as…

Spasmodic Dysphonia

What is spasmodic dysphonia? Spasmodic dysphonia, also called laryngeal dystonia, is a voice disorder. It is characterized by involuntary spasms or movements in the muscles of the larynx, which causes…

Spinal Cord Injury (Condition)

What is an acute spinal cord injury? The spinal cord is a bundle of nerves that carries messages between the brain and the rest of the body. Acute spinal cord…

Sprains and Strains

What is a sprain? A sprain is a wrenching or twisting injury or tear to a ligament. Sprains often affect the ankles, knees, or wrists. What is a strain? A…

Squamous Cell Carcinoma

What is squamous cell carcinoma? Squamous cell skin cancer (sometimes referred to as non-melanoma carcinoma) may appear as nodules, or as red, scaly patches of skin. Who is at risk…

Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

What is staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome? Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is a response to a staphylococcal infection and is characterized by peeling skin. The disease mostly affects infants, young children,…

Stomach Cancer

What is stomach cancer? Stomach cancer, also known as gastric cancer, is cancer that starts in any part of the stomach. The stomach is just one of many organs located…

Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Peptic Ulcers)

What is a stomach or duodenal ulcer? About one in 10 Americans develops at least one ulcer during his or her lifetime. Many people have surgery because of persistent symptoms…

Stomach and Duodenal Ulcers (Peptic Ulcers)

What is a stomach or duodenal ulcer? About one in 10 Americans develops at least one ulcer during his or her lifetime. Many people have surgery because of persistent symptoms…

Stress Fractures

What is Gallbladder Cancer? Gallbladder cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the inside lining cells of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a hollow sack located under…

Stroke (Condition)

What is stroke? Stroke, also called brain attack, occurs when blood flow to the brain is disrupted. Disruption in blood flow is caused when either a blood clot blocks one…

Substance Abuse / Chemical Dependency

What is substance abuse/chemical dependence? There are three different terms used to define substance-related disorders, including the following: substance abuse Substance abuse is used to describe a pattern of substance…

Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy

What are the symptoms of multiple pregnancy The following are the most common symptoms of multiple pregnancy. However, each woman may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms of multiple pregnancy may include:…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (Lupus)

What is lupus? Systemic lupus erythematosus, also known as SLE, or simply lupus, is a disease that is characterized by periodic episodes of inflammation of and damage to the joints,…

Temporomandibular Disorder (TMD)

What are the temporomandibular joints (TMJ)? Simply stated, the temporomandibular joints (TMJ) are the two joints that connect your jaw to your skull. More specifically, they are the joints that…

Tendonitis

What are tendon problems? Two major problems associated with tendons include tendonitis and tenosynovitis. Tendonitis, inflammation of a tendon (the tough cords of tissue that connect muscles to bones) can…

Testicular Cancer

What are the testicles? The testicles are the male sex glands and are part of the male reproductive system. Testicles are also called testes or gonads. They are located behind…

Tetanus

What is tetanus? Tetanus is an acute, sometimes fatal, disease of the central nervous system, caused by the toxin of the tetanus bacterium, which usually enters the body through an…

Thalassemias

Thalassemias Thalassemia is an inherited disorder that affects the production of normal hemoglobin (a type of protein in red blood cells that carries oxygen to the tissues in the body).…

Thoracic Aortic Aneurysm

What is a thoracic aortic aneurysm? A thoracic aortic aneurysm, also called TAA, is a bulging, weakened area in the wall of the aorta (the largest artery in the body),…

Thrombocythemia

What is thrombocythemia? Thrombocythemia is a myeloproliferative disorder. It is characterized by the production of too many platelets in the bone marrow. Too many platelets make normal clotting of blood…

Thrombosis

What is thrombosis? Thrombosis occurs when clots obstruct veins (blood vessels that carry blood from the body back into the heart) or arteries (blood vessels that carry oxygenated blood away…

Thyroid Disorders in Women

Functions of the thyroid gland: The thyroid gland, which plays an important role in the body's metabolism, secretes several hormones: thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and calcitonin. Other functions of the…

Thyroid Tumors

What are thyroid tumors? The thyroid gland is located in the front of the neck at the base of the throat. Thyroid tumors are either benign (noncancerous) or malignant (cancerous)…

Tinea Infections (Ringworm)

What are tinea infections (ringworm)? Different fungi, depending on their location on the body, cause ringworm. Ringworm is characterized by ring-shaped, red, scaly patches with clearing centers. There is an…

Tinea Versicolor

What is tinea versicolor? Tinea versicolor is a common fungal skin infection characterized by lighter or darker patches on the skin. Patches are most often found on the chest or…

Tonsillitis

What is tonsillitis? Tonsillitis refers to the inflammation of a tonsil - the large, fleshy, oval masses of tissue that lie in the lateral wall of the oral pharynx on…

Torn Meniscus

What is a torn meniscus? The ends of the three bones in the knee - the femur, tibia, and patella - are covered with cartilage (a smooth material that covers…

Torticollis (Wryneck)

What is torticollis? Torticollis, also known as wryneck, is a twisting of the neck that causes the head to rotate and tilt at an odd angle. What causes torticollis? The…

Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

What is toxic epidermal necrolysis? Toxic epidermal necrolysis is a life-threatening skin disorder characterized by a blistering and peeling of the skin. This disorder can be caused by a drug…

Toxic Shock Syndrome (TSS)

What is toxic shock syndrome? Toxic shock syndrome (TSS) describes a cluster of symptoms that involve many systems of the body. The following bacteria commonly cause TSS: Staphylococcus aureus Streptococcus…

Traveler's Diarrhea

What is traveler's diarrhea? Traveler's diarrhea (TD) is a term used to describe the diarrhea caused by infection with bacteria, protozoa, or viruses ingested by consuming food or water that…

Tuberculosis (Condition)

What is tuberculosis? Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic bacterial infection that usually infects the lungs, although other organs are sometimes involved. TB is primarily an airborne disease. There is a…

Type 2 Diabetes

What is type 2 diabetes? Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder resulting from the body's inability to make enough, or to properly use, insulin. It used to be called…

Types of Muscular Dystrophy and Neuromuscular Diseases

What are the different types of muscular dystrophy? Muscular dystrophy is a group of inherited diseases that are characterized by weakness and wasting away of muscle tissue, with or without…

Types of Skin Conditions (Laser surgery for skin conditions)

Laser surgery for skin conditions: There are many different types of lesions and skin conditions that can be treated with laser surgery. Your physician will decide if you are a…

Typhoid Fever

What is typhoid fever? Typhoid fever is a life-threatening bacterial infection caused by the bacterium Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi (S. Typhi). According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention…

Type 1 Diabetes

What is type 1 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes may also be known by a variety of other names, including the following: insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) juvenile diabetes brittle diabetes sugar…

Acne

What is acne? Acne is a very common disorder of the hair follicles and sebaceous glands. The glands become clogged, leading to pimples and cysts. It most often begins in…

Underactive Adrenal Glands / Addison's Disease

What is Addison's disease? Addison's disease is the result of an underactive adrenal gland. An underactive adrenal gland produces insufficient amounts of cortisol (a steroid hormone that helps to control…

Ulcerative Colitis

What is ulcerative colitis? Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in which the inner lining of the large intestine (colon or bowel) and rectum become inflamed. Inflammation usually…

H1N1

Novel H1N1 flu, popularly known as swine flu, is a respiratory infection caused by an influenza virus first recognized in spring 2009. The new virus, which is officially called swine…

Influenza

Influenza is a viral infection that attacks your respiratory system, including your nose, throat, bronchial tubes and lungs. If you're generally healthy and you catch influenza — commonly called the…

Bird flu

Bird flu is caused by a type of influenza virus that rarely infects humans. But when bird flu does strike humans, it's often deadly. More than half the people who…

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is considered the earliest form of breast cancer. In DCIS, abnormal cells multiply and form a growth within a milk duct of your breast. DCIS…

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that forms in the cells of the breasts. Breast cancer can occur in both men and women, but it's far more common in women. After skin…

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis (eczema) is an itchy inflammation of your skin. It's a long-lasting (chronic) condition that may be accompanied by asthma or hay fever. Eczema is most often seen in…

Milk allergy

Milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Although cow's milk is the usual cause of milk allergy, milk from sheep, goats and buffalo also can…

Milk allergy

Milk allergy is one of the most common food allergies in children. Although cow's milk is the usual cause of milk allergy, milk from sheep, goats and buffalo also can…

Jellyfish Stings

What is Jellyfish Stings? Jellyfish stings are a common nuisance to swimmers and divers. With trailing tentacles that contain thousands of tiny barbed stingers, jellyfish are found in all of…

Jock Itch

What is Jock Itch? Jock itch (tinea cruris) is a fungal infection that affects the skin of your genitals, inner thighs and buttocks. Jock itch causes an itchy, red, often…

Q Fever

What is Q Fever? Q fever is caused by a specific type of bacteria carried by animals, most commonly sheep, goats and cattle. When you inhale barnyard dust particles contaminated…

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome

What is Zollinger-Ellison syndrom? Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a complex condition in which one or more tumors form in your pancreas, the upper part of your small intestine (duodenum) or the…

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Brain Edema

What is Brain Edema? Brain Edema is a condition in which there is swelling in brain tissues. Your skull can’t stretch to accommodate the swelling, due to which pressure builds…

Cerebro- Vascular Accidents (CVA)

What are Cerebrovascular Accidents? Cerebrovascular Accidents occur when blood flow to a part of the brain suddenly stops and it doesn’t receive oxygen. This lack of oxygen may damage or…

Cervical canal stenosis

What is Cervical canal stenosis? Cervical canal stenosis is a condition in which there is narrowing of the spinal canal in the neck that further squeezes and compresses the nerve…

CNS Infections

What are CNS Infections? The Central Nervous System (CNS) comprises of the brain, spinal cord and related membranes. Usually, CNS is well-secured against infections by tough, protective membranes. But under…

CSF Rhinorrhoea

What is CSF rhinorrhoea? CSF (Cerebral spinal fluid)rhinorrhoea is a condition in which the fluid that is protecting the brain leaks through a hole through skull bone. The leakage can…

Diffuse Head Injuries/ Diffuse Axonal Injury

What are Diffuse Head Injuries? Diffuse Head Injury is a type of traumatic head injury that is characterised by microscopic damage caused throughout many areas of the brain. These injuries…

Head Injuries

What are Head injuries? Head injuries are injuries caused to your brain, skull or scalp. They can vary from a mild bump on your head to a bruise or traumatic…

Hydrocephalus

What is Hydrocephalus? Hydrocephalus is a condition in which fluid builds up in the cavities deep within the brain and causes it to swell. This excessive accumulation of fluid increases…

Skull Fractures

What is skull fracture?

SPINA BIFIDA AND SPINAL DYSRAPHISM

What is Spinal Dysraphism? Spinal Dysraphism refers to the neurological disorders related to the malformations of the spinal cord. What is Spina Bifida? Spina Bifida is one of the most…

Tubercular Brain and Spine Infections

What are Tubercular Brain and Spine Infections ? Tuberculosis is a contagious airborne disease caused by a bacterium called Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It basically affects lungs and has the tendency to…

Complete Heart Block (CHB)

What is Complete Heart Block (CHB)? Complete Heart Block (CHB) occurs when the electrical signals can’t pass normally from the atria, the heart’s upper chambers, to the ventricles or lower…

Acute Subdural Hematoma

What is Acute Subdural Hematoma? An Acute Subdural Hematoma is a clot of blood that develops between the surface of brain and its tough outer covering known as dura mater.…

Chronic Subdural Hematoma

What is Chronic Subdural Hematoma? A Chronic Subdural Hematoma is an old clot of blood that occurs on the brain’s surface beneath the outer covering of the brain. It usually…

Lumbar Disc Disease

What is Lumbar Disc Disease? Lumbar Disc Disease refers to the medical condition in which a compromised disc causes low back pain. It could be due to simple wear and…

Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage

What is Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage? Spontaneous Intracranial Hemorrhage is a blood clot that occurs within the brain tissue or ventricles in the absence of trauma or surgery. It calls for…

Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma

What is Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma? Traumatic Intracranial Hematoma occurs when a blood vessel ruptures within the brain or between the brain and skull causing blood to accumulate in the area.…

CATARACT

What is Cataract? Cataract is a common condition in older adults & can occur at any age in which there is clouding of the normally clear lens of the eye,…

CONJUNCTIVITIS (PINK EYE)

What is Conjunctivitis? Conjunctiva is a thin clear membrane that lines the inside of the eyelid and covers the white part of your eyeball. When your conjunctiva becomes inflamed or…

Corneal Ulcer

What is Corneal Ulcer? A cornea is a thin clear structure in front of the eye that overlies on the coloured part of the eye (iris). Corneal Ulcer is the…

Diabetic Retinopathy

What is diabetic retinopathy? Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of blindness and is caused by changes in the blood vessels of the retina. In some people with diabetic retinopathy,…

Foreign object in eye

What is Foreign object in eye? A Foreign object in eye is something that doesn’t belong naturally to the eye and enters from outside. It can be anything from a…

Glaucoma

What is Glaucoma? Glaucoma is a disease in which fluid pressure rises within your eyes, thereby, damaging the optic nerve and leading to vision loss or even blindness. Glaucoma generally…

KERATITIS

What is Keratitis? Keratitis is a condition in which the cornea- the dome shaped window in the front of eye covering the iris and pupil gets inflamed. It makes the…

Optic Neuritis

What is Optic Neuritis? Optic nerve refers to the bundle of nerve fibres that carries visual information from your eye to brain. Optic Neuritis is a condition in which your…

EYE TRAUMA

What is Eye Trauma? Eye Trauma can range from mild to severe injury requiring medical emergency. It can lead to permanent loss of vision if treatment is delayed. Eye Trauma…

UVEITIS

What is Uveitis? Uveitis is a generalised term used for a group of inflammatory diseases that causes swelling and destroys eye tissue. Uveitis mainly affects the middle layer of tissue…

Analgesic Nephropathy

What is analgesic nephropathy? Analgesic nephropathy is a chronic kidney disease that gradually leads to end-stage renal disease. It often results from taking painkillers every day for several years. The…

Brain Tumour

What is a brain tumour? A brain tumour is an abnormal growth of tissue in the brain. The tumour can either originate in the brain itself or come from another…

Diabetic Nephropathy

What is diabetic nephropathy? Nephropathy is the deterioration of the kidneys. The final stage of nephropathy is called end-stage renal disease, or ESRD. Diabetes is the most common cause of…

Acute Kidney Injury (AKI)

What is Acute Kidney Injury? Acute Kidney Injury refers to the abrupt deterioration in kidney function that happens within few hours or few days. AKI results in the accumulation of…

Acute Nephritic Syndrome

What is mumps? Mumps is an acute and highly contagious viral illness that usually occurs in childhood. Spread by airborne droplets from the upper respiratory tract, the disease usually takes…

CHRONIC KIDNEY DISEASE

What is Chronic Kidney Disease? Chronic Kidney Disease also known as chronic kidney failure is a gradual loss of kidney function over a period of several years. Eventually, the kidney…

Hematuria

What is Hematuria? Hematuria is a medical condition in which there is presence of blood in person’s urine. There are mainly two types of Hematuria: Gross Hematuria: When you can…

Nephrotic Syndrome

What is nephrotic syndrome? Nephrotic syndrome is a condition often characterized by the following: very high levels of protein in the urine low levels of protein in the blood swelling,…

Proteinuria

What is Proteinuria? Proteinuria is a condition in which there is abnormal amount of protein in urine. It is often a sign of kidney disease. Usually healthy kidneys don’t allow…

Proteinuria

What is Proteinuria? Proteinuria is a condition in which there is abnormal amount of protein in urine. It is often a sign of kidney disease. Usually healthy kidneys don’t allow…

Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis (RPGN)

What is Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis? Rapidly Progressive Glomerulonephritis(RPGN) is a kidney disorder that is accompanied by microscopic glomerular crescent formation and loss of renal function over a short span of…

Renal stones/ Kidney stones

What are Renal stones? Renal stones, also known as kidney stones are solid masses of crystalline mineral material and acid salts that are formed in your kidneys but can be…

Acute and Chronic Rhinitis

What is Rhinitis? Rhinitis refers to the irritation, inflammation and swelling of the mucous membrane of the nose that is usually caused by viruses, bacteria or seasonal allergy.   What…

Deviated Septum

What is a deviated septum? The nasal septum is made of cartilage, and divides the nose into two separate chambers. A deviated septum is an abnormal configuration of the cartilage…

Diarrhea

What is Diarrhea in children? Diarrhea is a body’s way or ridding itself from germs in which kids pass frequent, loose and watery stools from time to time. It is…

Ear Discharge

What is Ear Discharge? Ear Discharge is any fluid that comes from the ear and it may be blood, ear wax or pus.  What are the causes of Ear Discharge?…

Ear Pain

What is Early and Late Onset Sepsis? Neonatal sepsis is an invasive bacterial blood infection that occurs during the first 28 days of birth of an infant. It can be…

Early and Late Onset Sepsis

What is Early and Late Onset Sepsis? Neonatal sepsis is an invasive bacterial blood infection that occurs during the first 28 days of birth of an infant. It can be…

Extremely low birth weight baby

What is an Extremely low birth weight baby? An Extremely low birth weight infant refers to the baby whose birth weight is less than 1000gm. Such infants are also the…

Febrile Seizures

What are Febrile Seizures? Febrile Seizures are convulsions that occur in children during fever. They mostly happen in children between ages 6 months and 5 years and toddlers 12-18 months…

Foreign Body in Nose

What do you mean by Foreign Body in Nose? Children are naturally very inquisitive and they want to know how things around them work. In this curiosity, at times they…

Ear Furuncle

What is an Ear Furuncle? An Ear Furuncle is a boil that develops in the ear canal. It may be the result of infection deep in the skin resulting in…

Headache

What is Headache? A headache is dull or sharp pain or throbbing sensation in any region of the head. It may occur either in one or both sides of the…

Viral Hepatitis

What is Viral Hepatitis in children? Viral Hepatitis refers to the infection of the liver in which liver cells are inflamed/damaged. What causes Hepatitis? Viral Hepatitis is usually caused by…

Inborn Errors of Metabolism

What do you mean by Inborn Errors of Metabolism? Inborn Errors of Metabolism are rare genetic disorders in which your body loses its tendency to properly turn food into energy.…

Infant of Diabetic Mother

What is Infant of Diabetic Mother? A fetus growing inside the woman having diabetes may be exposed to high blood sugar levels throughout the pregnancy. If diabetes is not controlled…

Meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS)

What is Meconium aspiration syndrome? Before or during birth, your baby may be stressed out and due to this, it passes meconium stool (dark green fecal material produced in the…

Meningitis

What is Meningitis? Meningitis refers to the inflammation of the membranes that surround the brain and spinal cord. Bacterial Meningitis is rare but it is a medical emergency and can…

Nasal Deformities

What is a Nasal deformity? A nasal deformity refers to any abnormal variation in the appearance of the nose that not only causes changes in facial appearance but also results…

Nasal Polyps

What are Nasal Polyps? Nasal Polyps are soft, painless, non-cancerous, tear-shaped growths that develop in the lining of your nose or sinuses. They are often linked to asthma, infection, allergies…

Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia/Jaundice

What is Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia/Jaundice? Neonatal Hyperbilirubinemia/Jaundice is a condition in newborns that makes their skin and eyes look yellow due to high levels of bilirubin in blood. Bilirubin is a…

Neonatal Shock

What is Neonatal Shock? Neonatal Shock is a complex syndrome where circulatory function is not able to supply sufficient amount of oxygen and other nutrients to tissues to meet metabolic…

Neonatal surgical emergencies

What are Neonatal surgical emergencies? There is presence of congenital anomalies requiring emergency surgical management in infants following their birth. It is important to recognise and treat them within few…

Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN)

What is Persistent Pulmonary Hypertensionof the Newborn (PPHN)? PPHN is a life-threatening condition in which the newborns suffer from serious breathing problems. This condition usually occurs in full-term babies or…

Pneumonia

What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation in your lung’s air sacs, thereby, making it difficult for you to breathe. It may clear up itself in…

Pneumonia

What is Pneumonia? Pneumonia is a lung infection that causes inflammation in your lung’s air sacs, thereby, making it difficult for you to breathe. It may clear up itself in…

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS)

What is Respiratory Distress Syndrome? Respiratory Distress Syndrome is a problem in premature babies where their lungs are not fully developed and due to this they are not able to…

Respiratory Tract Infections (RTI)

What are Respiratory tract infections (RTI)? Respiratory tract infections (RTI)refer to any infectious disease that affects the respiratory tract. RTI is classified into two main types: Upper Respiratory tract infections…

Rhinoscleroma

What is Rhinoscleroma? Rhinoscleroma is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the nose and upper respiratory passages. It is caused by bacteria called Klebsiellarhinoscleromatis. In Rhinoscleroma, there is granulomatous swellings,…

Rhinoscleroma

What is Rhinoscleroma? Rhinoscleroma is a chronic inflammatory condition that affects the nose and upper respiratory passages. It is caused by bacteria called Klebsiellarhinoscleromatis. In Rhinoscleroma, there is granulomatous swellings,…

Seizure

What is a Seizure? A Seizure is a sudden surge in the brain’s electrical activity that happens due to chemical changes occurring in nerve cells. It occurs for a short…

Seizure

What is Nasal Septal Abscess? Nasal Septal Abscess is a serious bacterial infection in which pus is formed within the nasal septum. The nasal septum is defined as a normal…

Nasal Septal Hematoma

What is Nasal Septal Hematoma? Nasal Septal Hematoma refers to the condition in which blood gets accumulated within the septum (part of the nose between two nostrils) of the nose.…

Stroke

What is Stroke? A stroke refers to “brain attack” that occurs when blood supply to an area of brain is cut off and due to this, brain cells in that…

Nasal Vestibulitis

What is Nasal Vestibulitis? Nasal Vestibulitis refers to the inflammation of the tissues within the nasal vestibule. It is often caused by bacteria Staphylococcus aureus. Nasal Vestibulitis can be classified…

Bladder Stones

What is a neurogenic bladder? The muscles and nerves of the urinary system work together to hold urine in the bladder and then release it at the appropriate time. Nerves…

Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)/ Enlarged Prostate

<h5>What is Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)?</h5> <p>Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH), also known as enlarged prostate, is a condition in which the prostate gland that surrounds the urethra get bigger and…

Kidney Cancer

<h5>What is Kidney Cancer?</h5> <p>Kidney Cancer is a condition in which the kidney cells become cancerous and they grow abnormally in the kidney, forming a tumor. Most of the kidney…

Ligament Injury

What is Ligament Injury? A ligament is a tough band of flexible tissues that comprises of individual fibres and connects the bones in your body together. A ligament injury occurs…

Male Infertility

What is Male Infertility? Infertility means that a couple is not able to conceive a child even after having unprotected sex for more than a year. When this infertility problem…

Meniscal Tear

What is Meniscal Tear? Meniscus is a rubbery, C-shaped disc that cushions your knee and is present on the outer as well as inner edge of the knee. It keeps…

Osteoarthritis

What is osteoarthritis? Osteoarthritis, the most common form of arthritis, is a chronic, degenerative joint disease that affects mostly middle-aged and older adults. Osteoarthritis is characterized by the breakdown of…

Psoriatic Arthritis

What is psoriatic arthritis? Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis associated with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease characterized by red, scaly rashes and thick, pitted fingernails. The…

Rheumatoid Arthritis

What is Rheumatoid arthritis? Rheumatoid arthritis is the most common type of autoimmune arthritis that causes chronic inflammation of joints and also affects other body systems like skin, eyes, lungs,…

Scleroderma

What is Scleroderma? Scleroderma refers to the disease of connective tissues in which your skin hardens and tightens. Generally, it affects only the skin but in some people it even…

Sjogren�s Syndrome

What is Sjogren’s Syndrome? Sjogren’s Syndrome is an autoimmune disease in which the mucous membranes and moisture-secreting glands of your eyes and mouth are affected. As a result of this,…

Sports Injury

What is Sports Injury? Sports Injury is an injury that occurs when you are playing sports or exercising. It can affect any part of your body that includes your muscles,…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE

What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the person’s body produces abnormal antibodies in their blood that attack the tissues within its own…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE

What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the person’s body produces abnormal antibodies in their blood that attack the tissues within its own…

Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE

What is Systemic Lupus Erythematosus? Systemic Lupus Erythematosus/SLE is an autoimmune disease in which the person’s body produces abnormal antibodies in their blood that attack the tissues within its own…

Urethral Structure

What is Urethral Stricture? Urethral Stricture is a condition in which the urethra (tube that carries urine from bladder to be eliminated from body) becomes narrow and restricts the urine…

Abscess

What is an Abscess? An Abscess is a soft, tender, painful swelling filled with pus due to bacterial infection. The area of Abscess is surrounded by skin that is pink…

Appendicitis

What is Appendicitis? Appendicitis is an inflammation of the appendix where it becomes swollen and filled with pus. It is a small finger-shaped pouch about 5-10 cm located on the…

Autoimmune Disorders

What are Autoimmune Disorders? Autoimmune Disorders occur when your body’s immune system decides that your healthy cells are foreign and destroys them by mistake. These disorders can result in abnormal…

Chondrosarcoma

What is chondrosarcoma? Chondrosarcoma is a type of cancer that develops in cartilage cells. It is a malignant type of bone cancer that primarily affects the cartilage cells of the…

Congenital Hand Deformities

What are congenital hand deformities? Congenital anomalies are deformities that are present at birth. Any type of deformity in a newborn infant can become a challenge for the child as…

Cubital Tunnel Syndrome

What is cubital tunnel syndrome? Cubital tunnel syndrome feels similar to the pain that occurs from hitting the "funny" bone in your elbow. The "funny" bone in the elbow is…

Fistula

What is Fistula? A Fistula is an abnormal connection that is formed in the form of tunnel between two parts inside the body. Fistula can be formed between: Esophagus and…

Gallbladder Cancer

What is Gallbladder Cancer? Gallbladder cancer is a rare type of cancer that starts in the inside lining cells of the gallbladder. The gallbladder is a hollow sack located under…

Gall Bladder Stones

What are Gall Bladder Stones? Gall bladder Stones, also known as Gallstones, form when bile stored in the gallbladder hardens into stone-like material. Too much cholesterol, bile salts or bilirubin…

Hernia

What is a Hernia? Hernia occurs when fatty or intestinal tissues protrude through a weak spot in your groin muscle. This results in a bulge that is very painful during…

Incisional Hernia

What is Incisional Hernia? Incisional Hernia is a weakness in the muscle caused by the incision made in the prior abdominal surgery. To be more precise, when a surgery is…

Ingrown Toenails

What are Ingrown Toenails? Ingrown Toenails is a painful condition that occurs when sharp edges or corners of your nails dig into the skin next to the nail. Initially pain…

Inguinal Hernia

What is an Inguinal Hernia? An Inguinal Hernia occurs when fatty or intestinal contents protrude through a weak spot in the abdomen. This results in a bulge that is very…

Inguinal Hernia

What is an Inguinal Hernia? An Inguinal Hernia occurs when fatty or intestinal contents protrude through a weak spot in the abdomen. This results in a bulge that is very…

Intestinal Obstruction

What is Intestinal Obstruction? Intestinal Obstruction is the blockage of small or large intestine that prevents the passage of fluids and digested food. Due to this, food, fluids, gastric acids…

Lipoma

What is Lipoma? A Lipoma is a painless and harmless lump of fatty tissue that is located between your skin and underlying tissue. Lipomas are non-cancerous growth that are most…

Piles

What are Piles? Piles, also known as Haemorrhoids, are swollen blood vessels present in your anus and lower rectum. We all have haemorrhoids but when they become too big or…

Pilonidal Sinus

What is Pilonidal Sinus? Pilonidal Sinus is a small cyst or abscess that develops in the cleft of your buttocks where the buttocks separate. It usually contains hair, dirt and…

Scleroderma

What is scleroderma? Scleroderma, also called systemic sclerosis, is a chronic, degenerative disease that affects the joints, skin, and internal organs. Scleroderma is also associated with blood vessel abnormalities. Scleroderma…

Sebaceous Cyst

What is Sebaceous Cyst? Sebaceous Cyst is a non-cancerous cyst of the skin that is slightly hard and filled with fluid. It can occur anywhere on the body but the…

Umbilical Hernia

What is Umbilical Hernia? While the developing fetus is in the womb, it is connected to its mother through umbilical cord. In babies, this umbilical cord moves through a small…

Ventral Hernia

What is Ventral Hernia? Ventral Hernia occurs when an abdominal tissue or an organ pushes through a weak spot in the abdomen to protrude through a cavity muscle area. This…

Acute and Chronic Pharyngitis

What is Pharyngitis? Pharyngitis is the inflammation of the pharynx, which is located in the back of throat. It is a very common condition that causes sore throat.Pharyngitis usually occurs…

Adenoids and Tonsils

What are Tonsils and Adenoids? Tonsils are lumps of soft tissue that are present on both sides at the back of mouth. Their size may vary from person to person.…

Carcinoma Oral Cavity & Oropharynx

What are Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Cancers? Oral cavity cancer, also known as oral cancer, is a condition when malignant (cancer) cells in the mouth start to grow out of…

Change in Voice

What do you mean by Change in Voice? Change in Voice refers to a condition in which voice changes as compared to normal voice. This can happen due to some…

Difficulty in swallowing

What do you mean by Difficulty swallowing? Difficulty swallowing refers to the condition in which a person is not able to swallow foods or liquids with ease. In this condition,…

Foreign Body in throat

What is Foreign Body in throat? Children are generally very curious and they try to experiment new things. Out of boredom or curiosity, they tend to put things in their…

Laryngeal Cancer

What is Laryngeal Cancer? Laryngeal Cancer is a cancer of larynx (part of throat in the start of trachea containing vocal cords). In this disease, malignant (cancer) cells begin to…

Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

What is Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma? Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma is a rare type of cancer that starts in the upper part of throat, behind the nose. This area is known as nasopharynx. It…

Salivary Gland Neoplasm

What is Salivary Gland Neoplasm? Salivary Gland Neoplasm is a rare type of cancer that starts in one of the salivary glands. Salivary Gland makes saliva that perform various function…

Abdominal Lump

What is an Abdominal Lump? An Abdominal Lump is an abnormal growth in the abdomen that causes swelling or bulge to be formed in any area of the abdomen. This…

Adrenal Gland Disorders

What are Adrenal Gland Disorders? The adrenal glands are small triangular glands that are present on top of each kidney. They produce different hormones that control many bodily functions like…

Early Pregnancy Complications

What do you mean by Early Pregnancy Complications? Some females experience complications during their first trimester i.e. first three months of pregnancy. These complications can be dangerous for the mother,…

Endocrine disorders/Hormonal disorders

What are Endocrine disorders? Endocrine disorders occur when the function of one or more endocrine glands is disturbed and due to this, the delicate hormonal balance in the body gets…

Genital Ulcer

What is Genital Ulcer? Genital Ulcer is a condition in which the skin or mucus membrane in the genital area is lost and there is exposure of tissue underneath it.…

High Risk Pregnancy

What is High Risk Pregnancy? A High Risk Pregnancy is a pregnancy in which potential complications occur that could affect the mother or baby, or both. It is important that…

Irregular Menses

What are Irregular Menses? Menstruation is the part of menstrual cycle in which the uterus sheds its lining and bleeding takes place from vagina. It generally ranges from 21 to…

High Risk Pregnancy

What is High Risk Pregnancy? A High Risk Pregnancy is a pregnancy in which potential complications occur that could affect the mother or baby, or both. It is important that…

Infertility / Subfertility (Male and Female)

What is infertility? Infertility is a condition in which the couple has been trying to conceive for more than a year but has got no success. Generally medical assistance is…

Polycystic Ovary Disease (PCOD)

What is Polycystic Ovary Disease? PCOD is a metabolic condition that results in Irregular menstrual cycle Leading to the formation of multiple small cysts in the ovaries. In such condition,…

Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)

What are Urinary Tract Infections (UTI)? Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) occur when any part of your urinary system (kidneys, ureters, bladder and urethra) gets infected. Most UTIs occur in lower…

Vaginal Discharge

What is Vaginal Discharge? Vaginal Discharge is a fluid made by glands inside the vagina and cervix that carries away dead cells & bacteria. It helps in keeping your vagina…

Acute bronchitis

What is acute bronchitis? Bronchitis is an inflammation of the breathing tubes (airways) that are called bronchi, which causes increased production of mucus and other changes. Acute and chronic are…

Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)

What do you mean by Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF)? Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (IPF) is a medical condition in which the tissues deep in your lungs become thick and scarred, thereby,…

Interstitial Lung Disease

What do you mean by Interstitial Lung Disease? Interstitial Lung Disease is a group of lung diseases in which there is scarring of lung tissues between and supporting the air…

Pulmonary Tuberculosis

What is Pulmonary Tuberculosis? Pulmonary Tuberculosis is a serious bacterial infection that affects a person’s lungs. It can further spread to other organs of the body also. What causes Pulmonary…

Sepsis

What is Sepsis? Sepsis is a very serious medical condition in which the chemicals produced by a person`s immune system releases into the blood stream and instead of fighting against…

Tracheo bronchial foreign body removal

What do you mean by Tracheo bronchial foreign body? Children usually below the age of 3 years inhale a foreign body that lodges in their air passages and can further…

Flat Feet

What is Flat feet? Flat feet means you have feet either with low or no arches. In this condition, when you stand the entire soles of your feet touch the…

Frozen Shoulder

What is Frozen Shoulder? Frozen Shoulder is a condition in which your shoulder becomes painful, stiff and has limited range of motion. This usually happens when tissues in your shoulder…

Genu Varum

What is Genu Varum? Genu Varum, also known as bow legs, is a knee disorder that causes inward bowing of knees while standing, thus giving the look of a bow.…

Heel Pain

What is Heel Pain? Heel Pain is a very common foot problem in which one experiences pain either under the heel or just behind it. At times, this pain can…

Meralgia Paresthetica

What is Meralgia Paresthetica? Meralgia Paresthetica is a neurological condition that causes severe pain, numbness and tingling in your outer thigh. It occurs when there is a lot of pressure…

Osteomalacia

What is Osteomalacia? Osteomalacia is a condition that causes softening of bones, majorly due to deficiency of Vitamin D. In Osteomalacia, a person faces problems with bone formation or bone…

Rickets

What is Rickets? Rickets is a skeletal disorder in children that causes the bones to become soft and weak leading to bone pain, poor growth and skeletal deformities. It occurs…

Supraspinatus Tendinitis (Rotator cuffs disease)

What is Supraspinatus Tendinitis? Supraspinatus Tendinitis, also known as Rotator cuffs disease, is a condition of the shoulder in which the tendons of the Supraspinatus muscles (part of rotator cuff…

Tennis Elbow

What is Tennis Elbow? Tennis Elbow refers to the painful condition in which tendons on outer side of the elbow get inflamed. This usually happens due to repetitive motion of…

Trigger Finger

What is Trigger Finger? Trigger Finger, also known as stenosing tenosynovitis, is a painful condition in which any one of your fingers get locked when bent. It usually happens when…

Gastritis

What is gastritis? Gastritis is an inflammation of the stomach lining. While the lining of the stomach is quite strong and can withstand strong acid, drinking too much alcohol, eating…

GERD (Gastroesophageal Reflux)

What do you mean by GERD? Gastroesophageal Reflux, also known as GERD, is a chronic digestive disease in which the stomach acid or stomach content moves back up into the…

Irritable Bowel Syndrome

What do you mean by mean by Irritable Bowel Syndrome? Irritable Bowel Syndrome is a common, long-term condition of the digestive system that affects the large intestine. It causes pain…

Lactose Intolerance

What is lactose intolerance? Lactose intolerance is a condition caused by a lack of an enzyme called lactase, which, in turn, causes the body to be unable to digest lactose,…

Hyperparathyroidism

What is hyperparathyroidism? Hyperparathyroidism is caused by overactive parathyroid glands. Overactive parathyroid glands produce too many parathyroid hormones, which in turn stimulate increased levels of calcium in the bloodstream. The…

Ambiguous genitalia

What do you mean by Ambiguous genitalia? Ambiguous genitaliais a rare birth defect in which an infant’s external genitals don’t depict clearly whether male or female. In such babies, the…

Delayed Puberty

What do you mean by Delayed Puberty? Puberty is the time when your child’s body matures into an adult’s. Puberty generally begins after 7-8 years of age and as late…

Growth disorders

What are Growth disorders? Growth disorders are the problems due to which children are unable to achieve normal height, weight, sexual maturity or other features. What are the various causes…

Gynecomastia

What is Gynecomastia? Gynecomastia is a very common condition in boys and men where there is swelling in the breasts and they become abnormally large. It usually happens due to…

Hyperpituitarism

What do you mean by Hyperpituitarism? Hyperpituitarism refers to the condition in which pituitary gland produces excessive amount of certain kinds of hormones related to growth, reproduction and metabolism. It…

Hyperthyroidism

What is Hyperthyroidism? Hyperthyroidism refers to a condition in which your overactive thyroid gland produces excessive amount of thyroid hormones that circulate in your blood. It can greatly accelerate your…

Hypopituitarism

What do you mean by Hypopituitarism? Hypopituitary refers to a condition in which pituitary gland doesn’t produce one or more of its eight hormones resulting in deficiency of pituitary hormones.…

Hypogonadism

What is hypopituitarism? Hypopituitarism, also called an underactive pituitary gland, is a condition that affects the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland - usually resulting in a partial or complete…

Hypothyroidism

What is Hypothyroidism? Hypothyroidism, also known as underactive thyroid disease, is a very common problem in which your thyroid gland is unable to make sufficient thyroid hormones. Since thyroid hormone…

Insulinoma

What is Insulinoma? Insulinoma is a small tumor that develops in the pancreas and produces excessive amount of insulin. Usually, this tumor is non-cancerous and measures less than 2 cms…

Klinefelter syndrome

What is Klinefelter syndrome? Klinefelter syndrome is a chromosomal disorder that affects only males. In this condition, when a baby boy is born, he has an extra copy of X…

MEN syndrome (Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome)

What do you mean by MEN syndrome? MEN syndrome, also known as Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia Syndrome, is a rare, inherited disorder in which benign (noncancerous) and malignant (cancerous) tumors are…

Neuroendocrine Tumors (NETs)

What are Neuroendocrine Tumors? Neuroendocrine Tumors are tumors that develop in the cells of neuroendocrine system. The Neuroendocrine system comprises of nerve &gland cells that make hormones and releases them…

Obesity

What is Obesity? Obesity refers to the condition of a person in which abnormal or excessive body fat is accumulated causing negative effect on his health. If a person’s Body…

PGA syndrome (Persistent Genital Arousal)

What is PGA syndrome? Persistent Genital Arousal (PGA syndrome) refers to the condition in which there is spontaneous, persistent and uncontainable genital arousal, with or without orgasm and in the…

Short Stature

What do you mean by Short Stature? Short Stature is a general term used for people whose height is much shorter when compared to the height of their peers. This…

Turner syndrome

What do you mean by Turner syndrome? Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder in females when the sex chromosome (X chromosome) in them is either fully missing or partially missing.…

Vitamin D deficiency

What do you mean by Vitamin D deficiency? Vitamin D deficiency means that the levels of Vitamin D are very low in your body or your body is unable to…

Halitosis (Bad Breath)

What is halitosis? Halitosis is an oral health condition characterized by consistently odorous breath. Often identifying the cause of bad breath is the first step toward treating this preventable condition.…

Nipple Problems and Discharge

What are some common nipple problems? Nipple conditions are a common benign breast condition affecting many women. Some problems are related to lactation, while others are not. Like all breast…

Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

What is polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)? Polycystic ovarian syndrome (also called PCOS, polycystic ovary syndrome, or Stein Leventhal syndrome) is the most common hormonal and reproductive problem affecting women of…

Polycythemia Vera

What is polycythemia vera? Polycythemia vera is a rare blood disorder in which there is an increase in all blood cells, particularly red blood cells. The increase in blood cells…